Beryllium • Alkaline Earth Metal

Primary XPS region: Be1s
Overlapping regions: Cu3s, Ni3s, Au5s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy Be1s / eV
CuxBey, as received113.3
CuxBey,Ar+ cleaned112.5

Experimental Information

  • Be1s peak has very low sensitivity.
    • Use large number ( 50) of scans when acquiring Be1s spectrum.

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

  • There are no beryllium secondary peaks to assist in confirmation.
    • Difficult to confidently assign Be1s peak for low concentrations.

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Be
Date of Discovery: 1798
Name Origin: mineral beryl
Appearance: gray
Discoverer: Nicholas Louis Vauquelin
Obtained From: beryl, chrysoberyl

Melting Point: 1560 K
Boiling Point: 2742 K
Density[kg/m3]: 1848
Molar Volume: 4.85 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 4
Neutrons: 5
Shell Structure: 2,2
Electron Configuration: [He]2s2
Oxidation State: 2
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

Beryllium was once known as glucinium, from the Greek word meaning sweet, thanks to the sweet tastes of its salts. It has since been found to be extremely toxic, and potentially carcinogenic. Its characteristics as a stiff and light-weight material with stability over a wide temperature range make beryllium ideal for the aerospace industry in the manufacture of light-weight structural materials for high- speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, and communication satellites. It is also used in computer equipment, watch springs, and other instruments where light weight and rigidity
are needed.

This radioactive metallic element was created by bombarding americium with alpha particles. The fifth transuranic element to be synthesized, berkelium was discovered late in 1949 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Stanley G. Thompson, and Albert Ghiorso, who produced it by bombarding americium-241 with alpha particles in the cyclotron of the University of California at Berkeley. Berkelium metal is chemically reactive, exists in two crystal modifications, and melts at 986K. Like other actinides, berkelium accumulates in skeletal tissue. Outside of basic research, this element has no known uses.

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