Bromine • Halogen

Primary XPS region: Br3d
Overlapping regions: Na2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy Br3d5/2

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra

  • Br3d peak has overlapping spin-orbit components (Δ=1.04 eV, intensity ratio=0.671).

General comments

  • Not observed as element.
  • Br-containing polymers may degrade with prolonged exposure to X-ray beam.

hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Br
Date of Discovery: 1826
Name Origin: Greek brômos
Appearance: red
Discoverer: Antoine J. Balard
Obtained From: sea water

Melting Point: -7.2 K
Boiling Point: 58.78 K
Density[kg/m3]: 3.119
Molar Volume: 19.78 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 35
Neutrons: 45
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,7
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d104s24p5
Oxidation State: ±1,5
Crystal Structure: Orthorhombic

Stemming from the Greek word for stench, bromine is known for its strong, disagreeable odor similar to that of chlorine. Corrosive to human tissue and an irritant to the eyes and throat, bromine is highly active. It is reputed to be a contributor to the depletion of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere. Bismuth bonds easily with other elements and has a strong bleaching action. Bromine has been used in many applications including the manufacturing of fumigants, water purification compounds, dyes, and medicines. It is used to make brominated vegetable oil, which is found in many citrus- flavored soft drinks.

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