Primary XPS region: Cu2p
Overlapping regions: Pr3d
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Cu2p3/2|
|Cu metal||933 eV|
|Cu (I) oxide||933 eV|
|Cu (II) oxide||~933.5 eV|
|Cu (II) carbonate dihydroxide||934.7 eV|
In Cu (I) oxide, there is only a very weak satellite at 945eV.
Cu2p3/2 peak in Cu (I) oxide is NOT shifted but is broader compared to Cu metal.
Date of Discovery: ancient
Name Origin: Latin cyprium
Obtained From: Chalcopyrite, coveline, chalcosine
Melting Point: 1358 K
Boiling Point: 2927 K
Molar Volume: 7.11 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,1
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d104s1
Oxidation State: 3,1
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Playing a significant role in history for at least 10,000 years, copper is reddish in color and has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. Copper has many household uses including wires, doorknobs and other fixtures, plumbing, roofing, and cookware products. Most American coins are largely comprised of this element , while the Statue of Liberty contains 179,200 pounds of copper. It is also used to make several musical instruments, especially brass instruments and cymbals. Copper is essential to all higher plants and animals and is transported mainly in the bloodstream.