Gadolinium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Gd4d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Gd
Date of Discovery: 1880
Name Origin: J. Gadolin
Appearance: silverish
Discoverer: Jean de Marignac
Obtained From: gadolinite

Melting Point: 1585 K
Boiling Point: 3523 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7901
Molar Volume: 19.90 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 64
Neutrons: 93
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,25,9,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s25d14f7
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

This element is never found free in nature. Unlike its rare earth counterparts, gadolinium is relatively stable in dry air. It is soluble in dilute acid. At room temperature, it is strongly magnetic and is the only metal exhibiting ferromagnetic properties aside from the fourth period transition metals. Gadolinium’s compounds are used for making phosphors for color TV tubes and solutions of its compounds are used as intravenous contrasts to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical patients. While it has no known biological role, it is said to stimulate metabolism.

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