Iodine • Halogen

Primary XPS region: I3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy I3d5/2
Metal iodides~619 eV

Experimental Information

  • Iodine/iodide containing compounds may seriously contaminate vacuum chamber due to volatility.

Interpretation of XPS spectra

  • I3d region has well separated spin-orbit components (Δ=11.5 eV).

hexAbout This Element

Symbol: I
Date of Discovery: 1811
Name Origin: Greek iôdes
Appearance: blackish
Discoverer: Bernard Courtois
Obtained From: sodium & potassium compounds

Melting Point: 113.5 K
Boiling Point: 184 K Density[kg/m3]: 4.93
Molar Volume: 25.72 × 10-6 m3/mol Protons/Electrons: 53
Neutrons: 74
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,18,7
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p5
Oxidation State: ±1,5,7
Crystal Structure: Orthorhombic

Iodine is a purple-black solid that sublimes at standard temperatures into purple-pink gas with an irritating odor. This element is essential in daily human consumption and is necessary in the production of the thyroid hormone. Table salt is often enriched with iodine to ensure daily levels are met, hence the name iodized salt. Lack of this element in babies and small children can cause mental retardation and in adults, mental slowing. Iodine is an important material in several applications including pharmaceuticals, antiseptics, med

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