Silver • Group

Primary XPS region: Ag3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy Ag3d5/2/eV
Bromyrite (AgBr)367.5
Ag metal368.2

Experimental Information

  • High affinity for sulfur.
  • Silver compounds are typically X-ray sensitive.

Interpretation of XPS spectra

  • Ag3d region has well separated spin-orbit components (Δmetal=6.0eV).
    • Peaks have asymmetric peak shape for metal.
    • Loss features are observed to higher binding energy side of each spin-orbit component for Ag metal.
  • Small binding energy shifts for compounds, such as oxides. o Ag3d peaks broaden with respect to metal peaks.
    • Ag3d peaks broaden relative to metal peaks.

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Ag
Date of Discovery: ancient times
Name Origin: Anglo-Saxon siolfur
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: not known
Obtained From: ores

Melting Point: 1234.93 K
Boiling Point: 2435 K
Density[kg/m3]: 10490
Molar Volume: 10.27 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 47
Neutrons: 61
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,18,1
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d105s1
Oxidation State: 1
Crystal Structure: Cubic Face Centered

Silver’s main use is as a precious metal. Sterling silver, over 90% silver, is used in flatware and jewelry. Silver’s malleability and ductility, physical appearance, and value make it a common material in coinage. Of all metals, silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, but because of silver’s high cost, copper is commonly used in electrical applications. United States coins were minted of silver until after 1964. Silver’s halide salts are widely used in photography. The South American country Argentina, known as a source of silver, takes its name from the Latin word for silver, argentum.

Application Notes

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