Terbium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Tb4d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Tb
Date of Discovery: 1843
Name Origin: village Ytterby in Sweden
Appearance: silvery white
Discoverer: Carl Gustaf Musander
Obtained From: cerite, gadolinite, monazite

Melting Point: 1360 K
Boiling Point: 3230 K
Density[kg/m3]: 8.23
Molar Volume: 19.30 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 65
Neutrons: 94
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,27,8,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f96s2
Oxidation State: 3,4
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Terbium is a silvery white rare earth metal found in cerite, gadolinite and monazite. The element was discovered by Swedish chemist Gustav Mosander, who also discovered lanthanum and erbium. Soft enough to be cut with a knife, terbium melts at 1356 °C. Until the recent advent of ion exchange techniques, it has never been isolated in pure form. Sodium terbium borate is used as a laser material and emits coherent light at 0.546 μm. In fuel cells, terbium is often combined with zirconium oxide to stabilize crystals at elevated temperatures.

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