Yttrium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Y3d
Overlapping regions: Si2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy Y3d5/2 / eV
Y metal156
Y carbonate157.7

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra

  • Y3d region has well resolved spin-orbit components.
    • When multiple chemical states are present, apparent resolution of these two spin-orbit components is reduced.

General comments

  • Found in solid oxide fuel cell materials.
  • Y2O3 adsorbs CO2 from atmosphere to form carbonate species.

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Y
Date of Discovery: 1794
Name Origin: Ytterby, Sweden
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: Johann Gadolin
Obtained From: monazite, bastnasite

Melting Point: 1799 K
Boiling Point: 3609 K
Density[kg/m3]: 4472
Molar Volume: 19.88 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 39
Neutrons: 50
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,9,2
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d15s2
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Although it is never found unbound in nature, yttrium is commonly found in rare-earth metals. Yttrium is chemically similar to lanthanides and relatively stable in air. Yttrium compounds give color television its red color. Ytterby, a Swedish village, is located near a quarry that contained minerals comprised of rare earth elements and other elements. This village gave way to the name of this and three other elements. Samples of lunar rocks from the Apollo program yielded a relatively high content of yttrium. Yttrium has no known biological role and is not normally found in human tissue.


Application Notes

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